Ever asked the question: what is a wadcutter bullet? Continue reading to learn all about the wadcutter and semi-wadcutter bullets.
Today I’ll discuss another relatively uncommon bullet type: the wadcutter. Designed specifically for competitive shooting, the wadcutter excels in that role. But how does it do in other applications, particularly for hunting and self-defense?
The wadcutter is a relatively specialized bullet type that is only utilized in a few different cartridges (particularly .38 Special). As you can see in the photos below, a wadcutter bullet has a flat front and is typically cylindrical in shape.
Additionally, the bullet is usually all lead and has no jacket. Wadcutters are commonly (though not always) loaded so that the bullet is completely encased in the case. Some wadcutters have a flat base, but bullets with a hollow base are probably more common.
The flat shape of the nose is the primary feature of the wadcutter bullet. Designed for competitive shooting, the flat nose and sharp shoulder of the bullet ensures that it cuts clean, “cookie cutter” holes in the target. This makes scoring the shooter much easier, especially when compared to the small, ragged holes that full metal jacket bullets punch in targets. As you can see in the photo below, there is a dramatic difference in the size and shape of the holes that wadcutters make in a paper target compared to a regular round nosed full metal jacket round.
Since wadcutters are almost always unjacketed and have long bearing surfaces, factory loads are usually loaded to shoot at low velocities to minimize the deposit of lead into the rifling in the barrel and to keep chamber pressures at safe levels. As a result, most factory wadcutter loads shoot at 900fps or less, typically 700-800fps in full sized handguns and 500-600fps in short barreled pistols. The low velocity of these rounds significantly reduces their recoil. This, combined with their generally excellent accuracy at short to moderate range, makes the wadcutter an ideal choice for people learning how to shoot.
Like the RWS H-Mantel, the wadcutter is very good at the job it was designed for, but it struggles in applications outside of its primary use. Unfortunately, the shape of the bullet, combined with the extreme low velocity of the round, also decreases the effectiveness of wadcutters when used for self-defense. Though it is absolutely capable of causing severe injury or death, there are many better choices for self defense these days than wadcutter bullets. As a result, wadcutter bullets should only be used for self-defense purposes if there is nothing else available. These shortcomings also make the wadcutter a less than ideal choice for hunting big game.
Handloaders can sometimes improve the performance of wadcutter bullets for self-defense use by using had cast bullets and loading them to slightly higher pressures than factory loads. Others will take hollow base wadcutter bullets and seat them upside down for use as self-defense ammunition. However, this article is focused primarily upon factory watcutter bullet loads and I won’t go into detail on the advantages or disadvantages of (or endorse) either method.
Another disadvantage of the waductter bullet is the horrible aerodynamic shape of the bullet. This restricts the use of wadcutters to relatively close range (<50 yards). Though this is not often an issue for most handgun shooters, it can be a problem for people shooting wadcutter bullets out of a carbine. Additionally, wadcutters are difficult to quickly load due to the blunt, un-tapered shape of the bullet. This also makes for feeding problems when used in semi-automatic pistols. As a result, full wadcutter bullets are almost always used in revolvers, with .38 Special being the most common caliber.
Though full wadcutter bullets are often unreliable in semi-automatic pistols (except for the Smith & Wesson Model 52), semi-wadcutter bullets usually work much better. The .45 ACP cartridge in the photo above utilizes a semi-wadcutter design, which is basically a traditional wadcutter that is conically shaped and has a flat tip. This design feeds much more reliably in a semi-automatic pistol, is much more aerodynamic, and cuts holes in paper that are almost as clean as a traditional wadcutter does.
Semi-wadcutters generally have a shorter bearing surface than traditional wadcutters. This, combined with the fact that many semi-wadcutter bullet designs have a grease filled groove cut into the side, means that semi-wadcutters may be safely fired at much higher velocities than traditional wadcutter bullets. Correspondingly, the semi-wadcutter design is much more common and is used in a number of cartridges for revolvers, semi-automatic pistols, and even a few rifles for both target shooting and big game hunting.
Even taking into account the below average performance of the wadcutter bullet in hunting and self-defense situations, it is still a pretty useful bullet for target shooting and training new shooters. Luckily, the semi-wadcutter bullet provides almost all of the benefits of the wadcutter bullet without a number of the disadvantages (though it would still not be my first choice for hunting or self-defense ammunition). If you own a revolver, especially one chambered in .38 Special, I recommend going out and purchasing a box or two of wadcutter or sem-wadcutter ammunition and trying it out.